Sunday, December 27, 2015

How did contributing to Wikipedia help me understand the concept of globalization?

How did contributing to Wikipedia help me understand the concept of globalization?

It hasn't been long that I start to use Wikipedia. Since last semester, I started to use Wikipedia and edit some articles on it. Actually, It was not easy for me to use it. Because its base is structured well, so I have to know the rules for editing and some regulation that I have to obey. Editing on Wikipedia is not that simple but it also suggests some guides that kindly let me know about it. Therefore, I could edit on Wikipedia constantly and it helped me a lot in various ways. I have 3 classes that is related with Wikipedia this semester and these classes were really helpful for me. I strongly believe that Wikipedia help me understand the concept of globalization because of its features.

At first, I believe that Wikipedia is a product of collective intelligence. It is not just an encyclopedia. Users all over the world use, read, modify, and edit the articles on Wikipedia. In other words, everybody share their information and knowledge on a website and it is the Wikipedia. Moreover, other users are able to delete my article if it is not useful information or incorrect. And I can get some advice and feedback from Wiki users. Collective intelligence is well-shown in Wikipedia.

Secondly, everybody can use Wikipedia with its special feature that it runs freely. As Wikipedia is free, it is open source to everyone globally. It also offers more than 240 languages for using it. It means that Wikipedia is an global website. According to these points, Wikipedia let me know that my creature on Wikipedia can edited by other user all around the world. In addition, one of my article that I created and edited is shown at the main page of Wikipedia. So, large numbers of Wiki users all around the world read my article and some of them also edited on my creation. I have never imagine that it is possible to work on one thing with various nations of people. But, it was possible. Because it is Wikipedia!

For this semester, I have done it really hard for editing on Wikipedia. and I am really proud of myself that I am one of Wiki users who share their knowledge at open field. Wikipedia is really helpful for me not only to understand the concept of globalization but also to be one of the global group members.

Economic globalization

1) summarize

The development of companies with interests and activities located outside their home
However, the first firms to engage in manufacturing production outside their home country did not emerge until the second half of the nineteenth century.
exponentially. The most comprehensive definition of a modern TNC, and the one that underpins the discussion in this chapter, is ‘a firm which has the power to coordinate and control operations in more than one country, even if it  does not own them’.

Firms like General Motors, Royal Dutch Shell, IBM, Toyota, Unilever and others, are often held up as being  more powerful than many nation-states, although the commonly used device of comparing the relative sizes (and, by implication, the powers) of TNCs and nation-states is a highly misleading comparison, not least because it is based upon a fallacious statistical argument. Very few of even the 100 leading TNCs can be regarded as ‘global’ corporations in terms of their geographical extent.

What they all have in common is that they operate in different political, social and cultural environments.
TNC activity is conventionally measured using statistics on foreign direct investment (FDI).
FDI growth has consistently outpaced growth of world trade – by a factor of between two and ten times over the 1986–2000 period – a clear indicator of the increasing significance of TNCs as the leading integrating force in the global economy.

Less than one-third of the world FDI total is in developing countries. Indeed, the vast majority of FDI consists of crossinvestment between developed countries. Of course, there is significant – and growing – FDI in developing countries. But this is far less than popular opinion suggests and is, in any case, highly concentrated in a very small number of countries, primarily in East Asia and to a lesser extent in parts of Latin America. Nevertheless, the number of TNCs originating from the leading developing countries is undoubtedly growing. There is an increasing diversity of TNCs in the global economy.

it was the attraction of cheap – and usually unorganized – labour that was the primary attraction for firms in certain industries, such as textiles, garments, footwear, toys and consumer electronics. The so-called ‘New International Division of Labour’ that sprang into prominence in the literature of the 1970s and 1980s was based upon the claims that firms in the Western industrialized countries were fl eeing the constraints of high-cost, militant labour to tap cheap and malleable labour in developing countries. TNCs do have the potential to shift at least some of their operations in response to changes in labour costs.

But it is not only labour costs that are the major driving force. human capital that have become more significant. In particular, it is increasingly the availability of well-educated, highly skilled and strongly motivated workers located in ‘quality’ communities that are exerting a very strong influence on TNCs.

Greenfield investment is simply the building of totally new facilities (an administrative office, a factory, a research and development facility, a sales and distribution centre and so on). By definition, it adds to the productive stock of both the firm itself and the country/community in which it occurs. For that reason, it is generally the type of investment most favoured by host countries.

Many firms, especially US and UK firms (though not only these) have preferred to merge with, or to acquire, another firm to establish, or to expand, their presence in a particular overseas location. In fact, in recent years, most of the growth in world FDI has been driven by merger and acquisition (M&A), rather than by greenfield investment.

Another widely used mode of TNC expansion is to enter into a strategic collaboration with one or more other firms. most strategic alliances are between firms that are, otherwise, fierce competitors. In other words, they reflect a new form of business relationship, a ‘new rivalry . . . in the way collaboration and competition interact’.

Advocates of strategic alliances claim that by cooperating, firms can combine their capabilities in mutually beneficial ways. Critics point to the potential risk of losing key technologies to competitors. Nevertheless, the proliferation of such alliances has greatly increased the complexity and variety of TNC operations in the world economy.

A sequence of TNC development?

Starting with achieving a position of strength in their domestic market and only after that has been achieved do they venture abroad. The sequence usually identified is as follows. First, overseas markets are served by direct exports, normally utilizing local independent sales agents. Second, as local demand grows, it may become desirable for the TNC to exert closer control over its foreign markets by setting up overseas sales outlets of its own.

Contrary to much of the received wisdom on the global economy, place and geography still matter and in how they behave.

According to networks adnavces
By the very nature of their dispersed geographical spread across different political, cultural and social environments, TNCs are far more difficult to coordinate and control than firms whose activities are confined to a single national space. They require, in other words, a more sophisticated organizational architecture. 

TNCs are constantly engaged in processes of restructuring, reorganization and rationalization. TNC networks are always in a continuous state of flux. At any one time, some parts may be growing rapidly, others may be stagnating, others may be in decline. The functions performed by the component parts and the relationships between them will alter. Such restructuring and rationalization inevitably causes tensions between TNCs and other ‘stakeholders’, notably governments and labour.

Transnational corporations are, without doubt, one – arguably the most important – of the primary shapers of the contemporary global economy. There is no doubt, either, that their significance is increasing; more companies are becoming transnational at an earlier stage of their development. But TNCs are a far more diverse population than is often recognized. Not all are ‘global’ corporations. Indeed, very few are. TNCs come in a whole variety of shapes and sizes and there remain significant differences between TNCs from different countries of origin.

2)Mention of interesting

Interesting thing, while i was reading was 'How do you want to use the term GLOBAL?'
I mean, how do you want to set up a range of GLOBAL. Global TNC is only few ,still nowdays. A lot of companies in Asia and Europe are coporating with companies which are located near their country. For example, SAMSUNG's major factories are in china and vietnam and headquarter of samsung is in seoul. In this view, SAMSUNG is Asian company, not Global company. (Although, they sell their product globally. Which company doesnt in 2015.)

3)Identity one question

I got a question on my head while i was reading part of netwroks. I want to ask 'what happen to the companies in MOBILE ERA?'. These days workfiled and geographical is not a problem any more. Apple company is located in U.S, but some of the workers works in Korea. And some of companies dont have their building physically. I mean, Air BnB is the biggest hotel-company in the world, but they dont have their own hotel-building. Mobile&SNS&Internet totally are devastating of the origin concept of company. They exist simultaneously they don't. 

Wednesday, December 23, 2015

How did the Wikipedia assignment contribute to your understanding of globalization?

 Before taking this class, I used to visit Wikipedia as a tool in order to get some information, but now,  on this opportunity, I improved a page about Mudeungsan. It means that I became kinds of prosumer. By doing this, I got comparative attitude of sociology. Translating work and getting information from really many websites helped me getting this attitude. Because this process needed to stand outside from myself. 

By the way, It is absolutely true that Wikipedia assignment helped me to understand globalization. There are three reasons why I said like it.

 First of all, I felt that I accelerated globalization. Writing Korean things in English is accelerating globalization in itself. The meaning of doing it is that I am going to introduce Korea to foreigners. In this sense, It is connection with global world, and the word 'connection' is keyword of globalization. I believe that this small work can be globalization.

 Secondly, It is not exaggeration that Wikipedia is the best cosmopolitan website, and I contributed to this website. It means that I already got on the ship named as globalization. It is the process of understanding globalization.

 Finally, there is no border in Wikipedia. Anyone can edit a page. For example, foreigners can edit pages, although they are not Korean. We do not need nationality. Even there is no limitation of time and space. Actually, I edited my page whenever I want to edit it in wherever I want to do it. It shows that globalization is also the same. If there is connection, globalization happened in anytime and anywhere.

Political globalization

Political globalization

 Political globalization approaches to the social world by stressing postnatinal and transnational processes as well as a consciousness of the compressed nature of space and time. Political globalization has been discussed in the globalization literature on the background of the decline of the nationstate under the impact of global forces, which have created different kinds of politics arising from the development of transnational networks and flows, and processes of deterritorization and deterritorialization. Political globalization can be understood as a tension between three processes which interact to produce the complex field of global politics. First process is global geopolitics. Second process is global normative culture. Third process is polycentric networks.
 The first dimension of political globalization is the geopolitics of global power. A second dimension of political globalization refers to the rise of a global normative culture. One of the main expressions of this is human rights, which lies at the centre of a global cosmopolitanism, but it also includes environmental concerns, which are now global. It is also a dimension of globalization that is not specifically Western. As a result of global communication and popular culture etc, political communication is now also global, no longer confined to national borders. The sovereignty of the state has been challenged by the rights of the individual leading to tensions between peoplehood and personhood. This global normative culture provides normative reference points for states and an orientation for political actors. While globalization requires the existence of global players such as powerful states to diffuse and implement a global geopolitics, there is another dimension of globalization that is less related to states and which is not reducible to global normative culture. This is termed polycentric networks, that is, forms of non-territorial politics which emanate from a multiplicity of sites and which cannot be reduced to a single center. These processes of political globalization are associated with networks and flows, new sources of mobility and communication, and denote new relationships between the individual, state and society. Importantly, polycentric networks are associated with emerging forms of global governance. A global civil society has come into existence around International Nongovernmental Organizations (INGOs), various grass-roots organizations and social movements of all kinds ranging from globally organized anti-capitalist protests and global civil society movements such as the World Social Form, anti-sweat shop movements to terrorist movements. One of the distinctive features of global civil society is that it does not have one space but many. It must be stressed that these three dimensions of globalization do not exist separately from each other, for all are products of globalization and are interrelated. Political globalization generates a complex web of conflicts, dislocations, fluid political forms. The argument in this chapter questions this assumption that political globalization is not leading in the direction of a new global order of governance or world society but to transnational political action which challenges neoliberal politics. The logic of globalization bears out the central logic of political modernity in expressing the inner conflict within the political frame of autonomy versus fragmentation: globalization can enhance democracy but it can also fragment democracy by shifting autonomy to capitalism.
 The three dynamics of political globalization will be examined in this chapter around four examples of social transformation: the transformation of nationality and citizenship, the public sphere and political communication, civil society, and space and borders.

The transformation of the nation-state, nationality and citizenship
 Globalization reconfigures the state around global capitalism, making it impossible for nation- states to be independent. Two kinds of decoupling processes are evident: the decoupling of nationality and citizenship and the decoupling of nationhood and statehood. The decoupling of nationality and citizenship can be attributed to the impact of global normative culture, which has led to a blurring of the boundary between national and international law. The erosion of sovereignty has made a huge impact on nationality. In a similar way nationhood and statehood have experienced new lines of tension. The transnationalization of the state in the countries of the European Union has undermined the nation-state leading to the rise of new nationalist movements. The rise of nationalism since the early 1990s in Europe, which coincided with the fall of communism and the enhanced momentum towards European integration, created the conditions for a new kind of populist nationalism that has as its central animus the claim to protect the nation from globalization of all kinds, ranging from the trans nationalization of the state to global migration and global markets. The nationstate has become bifurcated: nation and state have become divorced, each following different logics. Many nations are now more shaped by globalization. Global cities, for example, are products of the de-nationalization of the nation-state and the rise of non-territorial politics.

The transformation of the public sphere and communication
 Communication is central to politics. Most nation-states have been based on a national language, which was increasingly standardized over time. The public sphere is the site of politics; it is not merely a spatial location but a process of discursive contestation. The global public has a major resonance in all of communication in the sense that it structures and contextualizes much of public discourse, as examples ranging from human rights, environmental concerns, health and security illustrate. The global is not outside the social world but is inside it in numerous ways. So it is possible to see political communication in the public sphere as increasingly framed by global issues. it may be suggested that global normative culture is playing a leading role in shaping political communication. However, global normative culture is diffused in many ways within public spheres and is carried by many different kinds of social agents, including states. Political globalization is most visible in terms of changes in political communication and in the wider transformation of the public sphere. It is possible to speak of a communicative kind of political globalization confronting economic globalization. This is different from global geopolitics, which as argued earlier has led to a transnationalization of the state in line with the rise of a global economy.

The centrality of civil society
Global civil society works to undermine the importance of the territorial state in favour of new forms of networked opposition or encourages individuals to see themselves less exclusively as national citizens but also as cosmopolitan individuals endowed with natural rights.

The transformation of spaces and borders
 This part can be explained by these metaphors : 'global village', 'world polity', and 'fragile earth'. It means that the concept of spaces and borders is changed or diffused.

#2, 3
 In the class and in this paper, I could get information about Political globalization. Honestly, before I take this class, I didn't know the conception of political globalization. The word 'Globalization' is more familiar than political globalization to students. Even they and me don't know that globalization has several dimensions such as cultural globalization, economic globalization, and so on. By this chance, I clearly got the conception of political globalization. There are many examples of political globalization, like the European Union, where political integration joins multiple nations together to make decisions and establish policies. Because the nations of the world have become much more connected, there is a growing prevalence of intergovernmental agencies, like the International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization and the United Nations. Political activity has transcended the old barriers of national divisions, where global agencies, international organizations and worldwide political movements have become much more common. The advancement of globalized politics is one aspect of how the world is becoming increasingly interconnected. This is happening in the midst of numerous other advances in technology, communication and transportation. The rise in the Internet is another occurrence that has lead to the governments of the world becoming increasingly interconnected. Globalization is a significant topic as the nations of the world increasingly trade and invest in one another, and the new challenges of global warming, social inequality and terrorism are further indicators of how globalized politics may be integral to the shaping of future international policies.

 The problem is why United States takes the lead in political globalization. In the aspect of the fact that they are connected, they are supposed to interact each other, but, in my personal opinion, they are invaded by Pax Americana. All states are involved with America for one reason or another. Not only politic globalization, but also other dimensions of globalization have proceeded by it. I think it can be called 'New Dictatorship.'